How 5G and IoT Enable AI Solutions to Emerge

How 5G and IoT Enable AI Solutions to Emerge

Konrad Fulawka - June 10, 2022

In a world of changing technologies and unpredictable situations, many of us today wonder where our world is heading. Will technology really be an integral part of our lives, as it has been so far, or will it be otherwise?

What do Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies have to do with 5G technology and the Internet of Things (IoT)? Can we risk the statement that all three technologies will be inseparable support for future generations?

In this blog post, I will try to present my view on these technologies that have a lot in common.

Future Revenue Streams

While most of us now have a basic understanding of technologies like 5G, Artificial Intelligence, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Machine Learning, Big Data, IoT, and Digitalization, there is still sometimes confusion about how digital business models work. These new ways of doing business are among the most disruptive business models of our age, driven by technology and the power of networks, particularly mobile networks.

How can we then create value for customers while using digital infrastructure and tools? Should the primary focus be on digital initiatives and most likely the ones that will drive enterprise market share, revenue, and profits?

5G New Technology as a Game Changer

Significant benefits resulting from 5G

Significant benefits resulting from 5G key features

5G network represents the fifth generation of Mobile Networks. Previous generations of mobile network technologies primarily addressed the needs of consumers, providing voice and messaging services with 2G, web browsing with 3G, and higher-speed data and video streaming with 4G.

The transition from 4G to 5G stands to benefit both consumers and businesses across various industries. 5G networks see billions of connected devices gather and share information in real-time, transforming the way we run our societies and industries.

For many end-users, the 5G upgrade is all about speed. With a 5G speed of up to 10 Gbps, new mobile networks are up to 100 x faster than their predecessors.

For industrial, agricultural, and commercial use cases, the most significant benefits of 5G are its high capacity and minimal latency. With up to 5 x the bandwidth available with 4G, 5G gives rise to new production and distribution methods.

Features of 5G Technology

5G Potential

Very often, 5G is called a unified innovation platform that pushes industries into unexplored areas at the edge of technology and which can be only limited by human imagination.

5G also has the potential to be the cornerstone of the economic recovery boosting enterprise, as well as opening up tremendous opportunities in other industries like:

  • Healthcare,
  • Utilities,
  • Media and Entertainment,
  • Manufacturing,
  • Retail,
  • and more new services.

5G Use Cases and Applications

Although 5G rollouts and deployments are still ongoing in many countries around the globe, many people and businesses still have questions about 5G applications and use cases.

To take advantage of the benefits of 5G technology, it is increasingly important to understand that the fundamental idea behind 5G is a single network that is flexible enough to handle a variety of different use cases. To deliver the promise of 5G, Mobile Network operators have to build a dense network with a massive amount of network nodes that will form the 5G infrastructure.

In many studies and blueprints available, we can find the “5G triangle” representing the category of applications for 5G.

5G technology triangle

The 5G Triangle

Mission Critical Control

Ultra-Low Latency (uRLLC) is one of the biggest game-changers once 5G technology is fully deployed and will apply in applications that require a response in fractions of seconds. Just name a few of them:

5G IoT Applications in Industrial Automation (aka Industry 4.0)

The key benefits of 5G in the industrial automation space are wireless flexibility, reduced costs, and the viability of applications that are not possible with current wireless technology. Industrial automation is in use today, and most likely many people have seen videos showing synchronized robotics at work in factories and supply chain applications. Today most of these applications still use cables, as Wi-Fi does not provide the range, mobility, and quality of service required for industrial control, and the latency of today’s cellular technology is too high.

With 5G, industrial automation applications cut the cord and go fully wireless, enabling more efficient intelligent factories.

As stated in many reports, “Industry 4.0 integrates the IoT and related services in industrial manufacturing and delivers seamless vertical and horizontal integration down the entire value chain and across all layers of the automation layer. Connectivity is a key component of Industry 4.0 and will support the ongoing developments by providing powerful and pervasive connectivity between machines, people and objects.”

For example, with Industry 4.0, humans and robots will be able to interact and work together; a machine can lift heavy parts, and the worker can attach them. For this to work, the robot needs to constantly communicate with the factory and its surroundings. It has to be mobile, have a complete physical range of motion, and have environmental sensors. These advances will enable symbiotic human-machine partnerships where each plays the role it does best.

Autonomous Vehicles

Autonomous vehicles are one of the most anticipated 5G applications. Vehicle technology is advancing rapidly to support the autonomous vehicles future. Onboard computer systems are evolving with levels of computing power previously only seen in data centers.

5G networks are an enormous enabler for autonomous vehicles due to the dramatically reduced latency, as cars will be able to respond 10-100 times faster than over current cellular networks.

Vehicle To Everything (V2X)

Vehicle To Everything (V2X) Communication

The ultimate goal is a vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communication network. This will enable vehicles to respond to objects and changes around them almost instantaneously automatically. A vehicle must be able to send and receive messages in milliseconds to break or shift directions in response to road signs, hazards, and people crossing the street.

When comparing 4G and 5G latency: Presume a car traveling down the road at 30 miles per hour needs to receive a signal to avoid hitting an object. With current 4G latency at around 100 milliseconds, a car would travel about 1.2 meters. With a 5G latency of around 10 milliseconds, the vehicle would only have traveled 12 centimeters. The difference is significant and could mean life or death.

5G IoT in Smart City Infrastructure

Today, many cities around the world are deploying Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) and are planning to support connected vehicle technology. These systems are relatively easy to install using current communications systems that support smart traffic management to handle vehicle congestion and route emergency vehicles.

5G and connected vehicle technology will enable bidirectional communications from vehicle to vehicle (V2V) and vehicle to infrastructure (V2X) to promote safety across transportation systems. Smart cities are now installing sensors in every intersection to detect movement and cause connected and autonomous vehicles to react as needed.

Massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC)

Massive IoT is less about higher speeds and more about scale. It refers to applications requiring connectivity over large areas involving a massive volume of connections and devices. Typically, bonds transmit low-volume, non-critical data.

According to 3GPP specifications, the 5G standard for Massive IoT will support up to 1 million connected devices for every 0.38 square miles (roughly 1 square kilometer). In comparison, 4G supports 60,680 devices at the exact size of coverage—a far cry from what 5G can deliver. To achieve a vision in which millions of devices are connected, two requirements must first be satisfied:

  1. On the technical side, the IoT standard must offer both scalability and versatility, offering enough capacity and network efficiency to connect millions of devices while also providing advanced features—such as longer battery life and a wider coverage area—to facilitate the expansion of new use cases.
  2. Many more new use cases need to be developed and tested on the application side.

Wearables, trackers, and sensors will be a big market for the Massive IoT aspect of 5G. Appliances and machines that we interact with daily are directly connected over a cellular connection, in addition to phones, tablets, and laptops that are already connected today.

5G already enables far more devices to operate without perceived delays, dropped signals, etc.

From the industrial point of view, Massive IoT will allow:

  • Logistic networks autonomously routing goods based on real-world conditions;
  • Full traceability down to the individual item at warehouses and ports;
  • Increased use of IoT in agriculture to efficiently grow crops.

High Data Rates and Traffic Volumes

More consistent user experiences can be available thanks to enhanced Mobile Broadband(eMBB).

Mobile broadband is the first actual use case for 5G, addressing traffic growth demands and providing the higher quality of experience that consumers increasingly expect. You can read more about mobile data network traffic in one of my recent articles: How Artificial Intelligence Solutions Can Keep Track of Network Traffic and Detect Anomalies.

In the high-speed use cases, there will be a range of applications that currently are hampered by slow speeds. As 5G deployment occurs, Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) provides ultra-fast Internet for consumers and businesses.

Higher bandwidth applications like 4K and, in the future, 8K streaming or 360-degree video will enable high-quality, immersive experiences at real-time speeds for consumers. As viewers, we will be able to control the angle we want to take. For example, in a video car race, we can look around and see who is next to or behind.

5G Fixed Wireless Access as critical revenue growth engine

5G Fixed Wireless Access as critical revenue growth engine

Businesses will be able to store more information in the cloud and access it over fast, low-latency 5G as if it were stored locally. This reduces the need for expensive on-premise servers. And instead of needing a fast laptop for rendering information locally, rendering will happen in the cloud and have it streamed to a defined point.

AI Technology Adoption

Artificial Intelligence is described as a broad set of computer sciences designed to replicate human-like abilities such as perception, logic, and learning - whether we like it or not - enter every area of our lives.

In a constantly evolving field, AI uses different techniques like deep learning and reinforcement learning to progress toward generalized intelligence. AI holds the potential to extract business insights from previously indecipherable data to improve operations and elevate the bottom line.

According to the latest reports, a total of 53% of Customer Service Providers (CSPs) were expected to have adopted AI within their networks by the beginning of 2021. A further 19 percent were looking at an adoption timescale within 3 to 5 years.

CSP focus for testing AI

CSP focus for testing AI (based on TM Forum Report)

The main areas in which service providers are already seeing the value and return from AI are in building new revenue streams and enjoying operational cost savings.

5G and AI

5G and AI are two of the most disruptive technologies the world has seen in decades. While each is individually revolutionizing industries and enabling new experiences, combining these two ingredients is fuelling tomorrow’s tech innovations.

We all know that Artificial Intelligence is not only an exciting technology that improves accuracy and prediction on a variety of problems, but it is also ultimately required to be used to take out the intelligence from the large amount of data produced on modern mobile networks, thus improving network quality.

Using network data produced by mobile devices, the Artificial Intelligence brain can additionally be used for analysis, network planning, forecasts, and guarantee healthy network operations.

AI also helps build the data management strategy by automatically optimizing network performance.

An Artificial Intelligence capability allows mobile networks to identify problems such as service failures or a breakdown on the factory floor. This is then diagnosed and fixed automatically.

Over time, AI will also be able to predict problems before they happen. Also, AI can help telecommunication companies design new 5G services by analyzing data in real-time to ensure there are enough network resources and point out where more resources are required.

5G meets AI technology

AI applications with 5G

Let’s take the example of self-driving cars. These vehicles will need to make sense of large amounts of data from thousands of sensors, like wheater an object ahead is a person or debris, and this has to be done continuously and in a matter of split seconds. At the same time, there is a lot of other data, such as performance or predictive maintenance, that can reside in a centralized cloud.

As some applications will require low latency, for all this to perform smoothly, network managers will need the ability to set priorities for traffic flows. Network slicing is seen as one solution. In network slicing, single, shared physical networks have multiple virtualized networks running on top of it.

This will allow a manufacturer to pay for a network slice with guaranteed latency and reliability for connecting smart machines and equipment. Slices must be manually configured as far as the current state of the art is concerned. The AI can help with this by optimizing network performance to route traffic based on device needs.

AIoT and 5G

5G + IoT + AI = Intelligent Connectivity

5G + IoT + AI = Intelligent Connectivity

Taking the convergence of AI and IoT one step further, some companies have created the term AIoT5G to refer to the convergence of AI, IoT, and 5G. The intersection of these technologies will attract innovation that will generate further advancements in various industry verticals and other technologies such as robotics and Virtual Reality (VR).

Smart Cities is one of the markets that could provide significant opportunities for technology integration to support highly customized yet scalable services. There will be a positive feedback loop created and sustained by leveraging the interdependent capabilities of AIoT5G.

AI works in conjunction with IoT to substantially improve Smart City supply chains. Metropolitan area supply chains represent complex systems of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

Smart Internet of Things

IoT is already a key accelerator for Artificial Intelligence. Currently provides opportunities to produce massive datasets that can feed Machine Learning and AI algorithms, turning data into insights.

Intelligent Cities

Today’s cities have become the places where traditional networks and services are made more efficient using digital and telecommunication technologies for the benefit of their inhabitants and business.

Diffusion and availability of new technologies are required to transform a city into a Smart City(aka Intelligent City), contributing to reaching a high level of sustainable urban development and improved quality of life for its citizens.

Intelligent Cities use the Internet of Things (IoT) to collect real-time data to understand better how demand patterns are changing and respond with faster and lower-cost solutions.

Broadly speaking, digital city ecosystems are designed to run on ICT frameworks that connect several dedicated networks of mobile devices, sensors, connected cars, home appliances, communication gateways, and data centers.

5G digital city ecosystem

5G digital city ecosystem

City as a Platform

Cities and Municipalities strive to be Smart and go digital, both for internal workflow processes and for new ways to engage with their citizens.

Since they first started investing in digital devices, they relied on computers to crunch large amounts of data on taxes, road repair costs, etc., and spit out paper reports for managers to interpret, thus have created islands of software that fail to communicate with each other. Police departments had one kind of software. Libraries had another. Different city offices had different systems.

Today, instead of separate islands that don’t communicate, both Cities and Municipalities must imagine a platform that supports and interconnects all the digital functionality the city needs to serve internal operating requirements and to engage with citizens.

To make the right choices about designing such a platform, cities will need to apply Platform Thinking, starting with an overview of what they have, where they want to go, and what they need to get there.

Through engagements with many cities amid their Smart City transformations, Nokia has observed that to capture the full benefits of these initiatives, these cities need to move beyond point deployments of individual services and applications to a more connected, cohesive approach.

The city as a platform strategy employs proven technologies like 5G, Industrial IoT (IIoT), analytics, and Machine Learning to enable the creation of intelligent and integrated city platforms that can support the introduction of a variety of applications, use cases, and business models, leading to true city innovation. More about this use case can be found in Nokia’s blog: Meet the 1000-year-old city of the future | Nokia.

Smart Homes

5G wireless systems are also used in households, turning them into Smart Homes.

Thanks to enhanced Mobile Broadband connection, users can remotely control functions such as home security access, temperature, lighting, and many more, depending on appliances and devices connected to the network. Once connected, all services and appliances are part of IoT technology.

Smart home automation

Smart Home Automation

Installing a smart home technology system provides homeowners with convenience. Rather than controlling appliances, thermostats, lighting, and other features using different devices, homeowners can handle them all using one device—usually a smartphone or tablet.

While the Smart Home offers convenience and cost savings, there are still challenges. Security risks and bugs continue to plague makers and users of the technology. Adept hackers, for example, can gain access to smart home’s internet-enabled appliances

Smart Manufacturing

A Smart Factory is a digitized manufacturing facility that continuously uses connected devices, machinery, and production systems to collect and share data. This data is then used to inform decisions to improve processes and address any issues that may arise.

The smart manufacturing practices used by a Smart Factory are enabled by a variety of technologies, including AI, Big Data analytics, cloud computing, and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).

Smart factories connect the digital and physical worlds to monitor an entire production process, from supply chain management to manufacturing tools and even the work of individual operators on the shop floor.

Fully integrated, collaborative manufacturing systems provide a range of benefits for operators, including allowing operations to be adaptable and readily optimized.

Smart Factory

Smart Factory

Searched reports and existing studies define four levels of Smart Factories:

  1. Basic Data Availability

At this level, a factory or facility is not really ‘smart’ at all. There is data available, but it is not easily accessed or analyzed. Data analysis, where it is done, is time-consuming and can add inefficiencies to your production process.

  1. Proactive Data Analysis

At this level, the data can be accessed in a more structured and understandable form. The data will be centrally available and organized with visualization and displays assisting with its processing. This all allows for proactive data analysis, although there will still be a level of effort involved.

  1. Active Data Insights

At this level, the data can be analyzed with the assistance of machine learning and artificial intelligence, creating insight without as much human supervision. The system is more automated than at level two and can proactively predict key issues or anomalies to proactively predict potential failures.

  1. Action-Oriented Data

The fourth level builds on the dynamic nature of level three to create solutions to issues and, in some instances, undertake action to alleviate a problem or improve a process with no human intervention. At this level, data is collected and analyzed for issues before solutions are generated and, where possible, actioned with very little human input.

Smart factories use connected equipment and devices to allow for evidence-based decision-making to optimize efficiency and productivity throughout the manufacturing process. I can list many benefits that factory automation brings, but mainly the added value is:

  • Delivering an Agile, iterative production process can extend the capabilities of both devices and employees, leading to lower costs, reduced downtimes, and less waste in the manufacturing industry.
  • Identifying and then reducing or eliminating underused or misplaced production capabilities increases efficiency and output with little investment in new resources.
  • The benefits of digitalizing a factory include those related to planning, quality control, product development, and logistics, as each is assessed and optimized based on real feedback.
  • There are also long-term benefits to be gained by introducing Machine Learning to the process. It is possible to schedule preventive and predictive maintenance based on accurate real-life information to avoid production line shutdowns by collecting and analyzing data.

Closing Remarks

The topic of the benefits of combining these three technologies is not exhaustive. I have already indicated the incredible potential of Artificial Intelligence and possibilities in telecommunications in AI In Telecommunications article, but referring to the benefits that come from these three technologies: 5G, IoT, and AI, use of them in many cases is possible to the appropriate mobile network management or rather, ensuring its proper performance for securing appropriate services for customers with CSP’sost for CSP’s that can provide low operating costs of the network.

And in turn, when proper network performance management is in place, the use of the technologies mentioned above in various configurations:(5G + IoT + AI), (5G + AI), (5G + IoT), etc. will be possible and beneficial for centuries to come.

If you like to read more about AI in telco and how nexocode applies these technologies in actual use cases, please contact us.

About the author

Konrad Fulawka

Konrad Fulawka

Strategic Advisor and Telco Expert

Linkedin profile

Konrad Fulawka graduated from the University of Technology in Wroclaw and has almost 20 years of experience in the Telecommunications Industry.
For the last 11 years, he works for Nokia. Over the time, Konrad was responsible for leading international and multicultural teams working on many complex telecommunication projects, delivering high-quality software worldwide. During the last few years, he is heading the Nokia Garage - Innovation Hub, which helps Nokia drive cutting-edge innovative projects.
At nexocode, Konrad acts as a strategic advisor and Telco Expert with unparalleled insight into global business trends and best practices across all verticals. He loves DIY (Do It Yourself) activities besides Political Economy and Financial Services Markets.

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This article is a part of

AI in Telecommunications
7 articles

AI in Telecommunications

Artificial Intelligence and ML are disrupting and transforming telecom businesses. Telecommunications companies can leverage these technologies to improve customer retention, enable self-service, improve equipment maintenance, and allow for an undisrupted flow of the evergrowing amounts of telecom data.

These advancements will also reduce operational costs, which means you're likely going see more savings than ever before! Click here for our article series about how AI revolutionizes the Telco industry across all areas.

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